Federalism


Federalism
   Federalism is a form of government in which power is divided and shared between the central (national or federal) government and the constituent (state or regional) governments. Individuals are citizens of both the central and constituent governments, and they elect at least some parts of both governments. A federal form of government is covenantal. This means that the authority of each level of government—central and constituent—derives from the constitution, not from the other level of government. Thus, neither level of government can take away the powers of the other.
   Broadly speaking, there are two types of federalism being broached to help solve the Kurdish problem in Iraq: majoritarian (also known as mono-national, nonethnic, territorial, or administrative) and ethnic (also known as multinational or pluralist). The United States is an example of the first type, while Switzerland and Canada are examples of the second type. Different variations of each model, of course, exist. In general, however, the first model tends toward greater centralization than the second.
   The Shiite Arabs in Iraq would tend to favor the first type of federalism because this would allow them to exercise the maximum amount of power inherent in their majority status. The Kurds, however, would prefer the second type of federalism because this would best enable them to preserve their ethnic unity and protect their political, cultural, and social existence. It also would grant them the closest thing to the independence they almost all desire but cannot now achieve given geostrategic realities. For their part, the Sunni Arabs in Iraq tend to mistrust federalism as dividing Iraq and initiating the slippery road to secession. The Sunnis also fear that federalism might leave them without any of Iraq's oil.
   The permanent Iraqi constitution adopted on 15 October 2005, while recognizing the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) as a federal entity within Iraq and allowing other such entities in Iraq to be created in the future, simply postponed the final decision on the type of federalism that would emerge.

Historical Dictionary of the Kurds. .

Look at other dictionaries:

  • federalism — fed·er·al·ism / fe drə ˌli zəm, fe də rə / n often cap: distribution of power in a federation between the central authority and the constituent units (as states) involving esp. the allocation of significant lawmaking powers to those constituent… …   Law dictionary

  • federalism — FEDERALÍSM s.n. Concepţie şi acţiune politică şi juridică în vederea grupării mai multor state într o federaţie. – Din fr. fédéralisme. Trimis de RACAI, 21.11.2003. Sursa: DEX 98  federalísm s. n. Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar… …   Dicționar Român

  • Federalism — Fed er*al*ism, n. [Cf. F. f[ e]d[ e]ralisme.] The principles of Federalists or of federal union. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • federalism — 1793, Amer.Eng., from Fr. fédéralisme, from fédéral (see FEDERAL (Cf. federal)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • federalism — [fed′ər əl iz΄əm] n. 1. a) the federal principle of government or organization b) support of this principle ☆ 2. [F ] the principles of the Federalist Party …   English World dictionary

  • Federalism — Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus , covenant) with a governing representative head. The term federalism is also used to describe a system of the government in which… …   Wikipedia

  • federalism — /fed euhr euh liz euhm/, n. 1. the federal principle of government. 2. U.S. Hist. a. advocacy of the federal system of government. b. (cap.) the principles of the Federalist party. [1780 90, Amer.; FEDERAL + ISM] * * * Political system that binds …   Universalium

  • federalism —    A system of government in which responsibilities and powers are shared between the centre and regional or state units. The division of power is laid down in a written constitution and any dispute is arbitrated by a supreme court. There is no… …   Glossary of UK Government and Politics

  • federalism — [[t]fe̱dərəlɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT Federalism is belief in or support for a federal system of government, or this system itself. They argue that the amendment undermines Canadian federalism …   English dictionary

  • federalism — /ˈfɛdərəlɪzəm/ (say feduhruhlizuhm), /ˈfɛdrə / (say fedruh ) noun 1. the federal principle of government. 2. Also, new federalism. the belief that the rights and powers of individual states in a federation should not be diminished by or subsumed… …   Australian English dictionary